Lake Maninjau (Indonesian: Danau Maninjau, Meninjau means Overlook or Observation ) is a caldera lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located 16 km to the west of Bukittinggi, at [show location on an interactive map] 0?19′S, 100?12′E.
The Maninjau caldera was formed by a volcanic eruption estimated to have occurred around 52,000 years ago. Deposits from the eruption have been found in a radial distribution around Maninjau extending up to 50 km to the east, 75 km to the southeast, and west to the present coastline. The deposits are estimated to be distributed over 8500 km? and have a volume of 220?250 km?. The caldera has a length of 20 km and a width of 8 km
Lake Maninjau has an area of 99.5 km?, being approximately 16 km long and 7 km wide. The average depth is 105 m, with a maximum depth of 165 m. The natural outlet for excess water is the Antokan river, located on the west side of the lake. It is the only lake in Sumatra which has a natural outlet to the west coast. Since 1983 this water has been used to generate hydroelectric power for West Sumatra.
Most of the people who live around Lake Maninjau are ethnically Minangkabau. Villages on the shores of the lake include Maninjau and Bayur.
Maninjau is a notable tourist destination in the region due to its scenic beauty and mild climate. It is also used as a site for paragliding.
The lake is used for aquaculture, using karamba floating net cages. The technique was introduced in 1992, and by 1997 there were over 2,000 cage units with over 600 households engaged. Each cage may have 3-4 production cycles each year. There is evidence of pollution around some karamba area.
On the edge of the lake, the landuse includes rice fields in the swamps and the lower slopes. The villages are bordered uphill by a large belt of forestlike tree gardens, which dissolves into the upper montane forest on the steepest parts of the slopes up to the ridge of the caldera.
The tree gardens include three typical components:
* Fruit trees including durian, jack fruit, cempedak, rambutan, langsat, golden berries and water apples.
* Timber species including Toona sinensis and Pterospermum javanicum.
* Spice trees including cinnamon, coffee, nutmeg and cardamum.
Despite the hair-raising entrance, Lake Maninjau is a place to relax, away from the hassles of everyday travel. Days are bright and sunny and evenings cool with little to distract you from the important task of doing nothing. In the morning the still water so perfectly reflects the sky and surrounding crater that it is easy to think the lake is naught but a mirror and not a terrifying 400 meters deep.
The lake and mountains are open invitations to swim, canoe, walk, hike, cycle, jog, explore the local villages, markets and local flora and fauna, or just relax generally while you enjoy the scenery, climate, friendly locals and the beautiful sunsets.
Lake Maninjau is a beautiful, 18 km x 18 km x 460 m deep, clear, fresh water crater lake, surrounded by tree covered mountains, and encircled by a 66 km road.
There are some small hot springs in the area. Although set some 471 m above sea level, with air temperatures averaging 27?C, the water in the lake is commonly about 30?C.